Los Angeles, California
The City of Los Angeles upgraded a major portion of its sewer system in response to severe sewage spills during the El Niño of 1998. The $240 million project involved the installation of new underground sewer lines, air siphon lines, junction boxes, etc. A combination of open cuts and tunnel-boring machines (TBMs) were used to access the areas where the permanent structures were installed.
Structural Engineering, Construction Engineering